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1. Take smaller bites of food and chew it properly.

2. Insufficient water is the main cause of constipation. So drink enough water.  The best time to drink pure water is first thing in the     morning when you wake up, during or around work-outs, and between meals.

3. Take minimum amount of water during eating  because fluids will dilute your stomach acid and all the digestive enzymes.

4. Increase dietary fibers such as dried fruit, such as dates, figs, pruces, beans and legumes, etc.

5. Try to avoid antacids, and this includes Tums, Rolaids, the little purple pill and countless other varieties thereof.

6. Try to eat sitting down and in a relaxed environment.













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Every LPG cylinder has an expiry date. So it is important to know the expiry date of a LPG cylinder because it may lead to hazardous accidents that may could to fatal. 

The Expiry date consists of character A to D and a two digit numeric value.
The A stands for March (1st Qtr), B for June (2nd Qtr), C for September (3rd Qtr) and D for December (4th Qtr). The two digit number depicts the expiry year. So for Example


  A-17 would mean the expiry date is March 2017


  B-17 would mean expiry date is June 2017


D-11 means expiry date is December 2011.

Other safety issues with gas issues

  1. Liquid may jam inside the pipe. So the pipe must be continuously cleaned in an interval of 6-8 months.
  2. The LPG cylinder should be kept in an well ventilated area and the cylinder must be kept in an wooden plate.
  3. The LPG cylinder should be kept away from petroleum products or flammable liquids.
  4. Ensure valves are turned off firmly when not in use.
  5. Never use a naked flame to detect a leak. To check for gas leakage, spray soapy water on any suspect connection or hose and watch for bubbles. If in doubt, turn off the gas and have a licensed gas fitter attend to the hose or connection.


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Room to Read is an international organization founded by John Wood; formerly the executive official at Microsoft Corporation, with the belief that World Change Starts with Educated Children. Today Room to Read is working in than 9 countries in Asia and Africa.

On an interview with John Wood, he stated that the concept of Room to Read started when he visited a local school in Bahundanda, Nepal in 1998. There he saw a room labeled ‘Library’ but there were no books at all. The little available books are locked into a cabinet in order to prevent from damage at the hands of poor students. However, John Wood was amazed by the warmth and inthusiasm of the local teacher and students however also saddened by the lack of books and other resources.

Soon, John left Microsoft with the determination to build a global team of volunteers and donors for working in rural villages and building sustainable solutions for their educational challenges. At the present day, Room to Read is known as an international literacy nonprofit organization that builds local libraries, schools, computer labs in developing countries. The organization also provides scholarships for girls from remote villages. Room to Read is working in Nepal, Bangladesh, Cambodia, India, Laos, Sri Lanka, Vietnam, South Africa and Zambia.

The impact of Room to Large is shown below:

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Autism is a complex neuro developmental disorder which appears in infancy and becomes evident during childhood. There are no reliable estimates for Nepal as autism is not known to many people. There is a lack of awareness amongst peopel and diagnosis on this is weak as the milder cases go unnoticed even by the clinicians. Autism Care Nepal (ACN) estimates autistic population lies between 10,000 to 50,000 in Nepal. As many as 1.5 million people in the US may have some form of autism. Autism affects all races, ethnic groups, and socioeconomic levels. Boys are 3-4 times more likely than girls to have autism.

It has the following three defining characteristic features:

1. Difficulty in social interactions.

2. Impaired verbal and nonverbal (body language) communication.

3. A pattern of repetitive behavior with narrow, restricted interest (also called stereotyped behaviors) such as repeating words or actions, obsessively following routines or schedules, and playing in repetitive ways.

Clinical Features (Diagnosis)

A number of other associated symptoms frequently coexist with autism. Most people with autism have problems using language, forming relationships, and appropriately interpreting and responding to the external world around them.

Autism is a behaviorally defined developmental disorder that begins in early childhood. Although the diagnosis of autism may not be made until a child reaches preschool or school age, the signs and symptoms of autism may be apparent by the time the child is aged 12-18 months, and the behavioral characteristics of autism are almost always evident by the time the child's age is 3 years. Language delay in the preschool years (younger than 5 years) is typically the presenting problem for more severely affected children with autism. Self mutilating behavior includes movements that injure or can injure the child, such as eye poking, skin picking, hand biting and head banging.

Autistic infants show less attention to social stimuli, smile and look at others less often, and respond less to their own name. Autistic toddlers differ more strikingly from social norms; for example, they have less eye contact and turn taking, and do not have the ability to use simple movements to express oneself, such as the deficiency to point at things. Three- to five-year-old autistic children are less likely to exhibit social understanding, approach others spontaneously, imitate and respond to emotions, communicate nonverbally, and take turns with others. However, they do form attachments to their primary caregivers. Autism can occur in association with other difficulties like Cerebral Palsy, Dyslexia, Down syndrome, Visual Impairment, and Seizure Disorder. Autism disorder persists throughout the person's lifetime, although many people are able to learn to control and modify their behavior to some extent.

Different people with autism can have very different symptoms. Health care providers think of autism as a “spectrum" disorder, a group of disorders with similar features (Rett Syndrome, Asperger’s Syndrome). One person may have mild symptoms, while another may have serious symptoms. But they both have an autism spectrum disorder.

There is a wide range of symptoms, severity, and other manifestations of these disorders. The expression of autism spectrum disorders varies widely among affected individuals. A child with significant impairment in all three of the core functioning areas (socialization, communication, and atypical, repetitive behaviors) may have autism, while a child with similar problems but without delays in language development may have Asperger's syndrome.

Some people are affected with fairly mild symptoms and signs of autism. Many of these individuals learn to live independent lives. Others are more severely affected and require lifelong care and supervision. Diagnosis is mainly on the basis of clinical features and by excluding other childhood psychiatric illness.


There is no cure for autism; however, there is good news that with effective and early behavioral therapy the mild to moderately affected children can lead a normal life. The main goals when treating children with autism are to lessen associated deficits and family distress, and to increase quality of life and functional independence. No single treatment is best and treatment is typically tailored to the child's needs.

  • A generation ago, most children with autism were institutionalized. This is no longer the case and most children with this disorder live with their families.
  • Improving understanding of autism has shown that, regardless of the severity of the condition, appropriate treatment and education can eventually help many children with autism to be integrated into their community.
  • Early diagnosis is essential for implementing appropriate treatment and education at an early age, when they can do the most good.

The range of symptoms located along the autism spectrum are so varied and sometimes difficult to pinpoint that labeling famous people with autism can be tricky as well. Among the most well-known speculated to have autism are Bill Gates, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein. Obviously, these people are considered geniuses in their fields or areas of interests; Albert Einstein seemed to believe that there was certainly something different about himself when he stated, "Do not worry about. your problems with mathematics. I assure you, mine are far greater!"

In Nepal, NGOs working on Autism are: Nepal Autistic Society, Nepal Autism Committee, Gyaneshwor and Autism Care Nepal, Lazimpat, Kathmandu.


- Dr. Vidya Singh

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Former Pakistan cricket captain Salman Butt has been jailed for 30 months for his part in the conspiracy to bowl deliberate no-balls in last year's Test match against England.

Former world number two Test bowler Mohammad Asif was jailed for one year and bowler Mohammad Amir has been sentenced to six months.

Cricket agent Mazhar Majeed was jailed for two years and eight months.

The judge, Mr Justice Cooke, said cricket matches would forever be tainted by the scandal.

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विज्ञानको चमत्कारिक आविष्कारहरु मध्येको एक आविष्कार हो टेलिफोन। अंग्रेजीमा टेलि भन्नाले दुर तथा फोन भन्नाले कुराकानी भन्ने बुझिन्छ। धागोको दुबैछेउमा सलाईको बट्टा राखेर बोल्ने र सुन्ने परिकल्पनालाई साकार पार्दै अलेक्जेण्डर ग्राहम् बेलले टेलिफोनको आविष्कार गरे। त्यहि टेलिफोनले विभिन्न चरणहरु पार गर्दै एक्काईसौं सताब्दीमा आज हामी मोबाईल फोनको यस युगमा प्रवेश गरेका छौं।
मोबाईल फोन आज मानिसको अभिन्न अङ्ग भइसकेको छ । मोबाईल फोन सञ्चार तथा समाचार आदान प्रदान गर्ने प्रमुख माध्यम भई सकेको छ। हुन त ल्याण्ड लाइन फोनको पनि उत्तिकै महत्व छ तर मोबाईल फोनमार्फत तपाई जहाँ र जहिलेपनि जो सुकैसँग सम्पर्क राख्न सक्नुहुन्छ। नाडीघडी या अन्य शरीरमा लगाईने गहना झै यो मोबाईल फोनले पनि शरीरको गहनाको रुप धारण गरिसकेको छ।
मोबाईल फोन आज संसारभर प्रत्येक व्यक्तिको हातमा पुगेको छ र प्रत्येक व्यक्तिको हात कानमा पुगिरहेको हुन्छ। दुखेको कानमा हात राखेर सन्चो अनुभुति गरेको भान हुनेगरि कानमा हात राखेको र सडकमा आवत जावत गर्ने सबै एकै रोगले पिडित झै देखिने गरी सबै फोनमा कुरा गर्दै हिँडिरहेका हुन्छन्।
बिशेष गरी आजका दिनमा बिकसित देश लगायत नेपाल जस्तो विकासोन्मुख देशमा समेत मोबाईल फोनको प्रयोग अत्याधिक हुने गरेको छ। मोबाईल फोन मुख्यतया कुराकानी गर्नका लागि प्रयोग गरिन्छ भने यस बाहेक मेसेज तथा ईमेल पठाउन, गित सुन्न, तस्विर तथा भिडियो सुटिङ गर्न, ईन्टरनेट चलाउन, ठाउँ वा बाटो पत्ता लगाउन, मिटिङ तथा भेटघाट स्टोर गर्न का साथै मोबाईल बैंकिङमा समेत प्रयोग हुने गर्दछ। जति सरलताका साथ मोबाईल फोनको सुबिधा प्रयोग गरिन्छ, त्यतिनै सजिलै अक्सर प्रयोगकर्ताले मोबाईल फोनमा भएको महत्वपूर्ण ब्यक्तिगत सूचनाहरु बिर्सने गर्दछन्। तपाईंको मोबाईल फोन गलत हातमा पर्न गएमा वा चोरी भएमा अनावश्क झमेला निम्तन सक्दछ। त्यसैले आउनुहोस मोबाईल फोन सूरक्षा सम्बन्धी केहि चर्चा गरौं।

१.    आफ्नो फोनको अवस्था बारे जानकारी राख्नुहोस
तपाईले आफ्नो वरिपरी प्राय: आफन्तहरुको मोबाईल हराएको बारे सुन्नु भएकै होला। बिशेसत: मोबाईल फोन हराउने मुख्य कारण मोबाईल फोन जथाभावी राख्नु वा मोबाईल फोनको अवस्था बारे जानकारी नहुनु नै हुने गर्दछ। त्यसैले मोबाईल फोनलाई आफ्नो पर्स जस्तै गरी आफै संग राख्नुहोस। अन्य ठाऊँमा राख्नु पर्ने भएमा पनि हरेक पल मोबाईल फोनको अवस्था बारे जानकारी राख्नुहोस।

२.    मोबाईलको सूरक्षा प्रणाली प्रयोग गर्नुहोस
हरेक फोनमा सूरक्षा सम्बन्धि बिभिन्न किसिमका सेटिङहरु हुने गर्दछन्। जुन मोबाईल फोन बनाउने कम्पनी अनुसार फरक फरक हुने गर्दछ। त्यसैले आफ्नो फोनको सूरक्षा प्रणाली सम्बन्धि जानकारी राख्नुहोस र सकेसम्म बढी भन्दा बढी सूरक्षा सम्बन्धि सेटिङहरु प्रयोग गर्नुहोस।

३.    पासवर्ड वा पिनको प्रयोग गर्नुहोस
तपाईको मोबाईल फोनमा भएको ब्यक्तिगत सूचना सूरक्षित राख्ने सबै भन्दा सजिलो उपाय पासवर्ड वा पिन सेट गर्नु हो। जस अनुसार, तपाईले हरेक पटक फोन प्रयोग गर्न पासवर्ड वा पिन प्रयोग गर्नु पर्ने हुन्छ। पासवर्ड प्रयोग गर्नाले, तपाईको फोन चोरी भएमा वा हराईहालेमा पनि अन्य ब्यक्तिले प्रयोग गर्न सक्दैनन् साथै तपाईको व्यक्तिगत सूचनाको समेत सूरक्षा हुन जान्छ।

४.    हराएको वा चोरी भएको फोनको रिपोर्ट गर्नुहोस
हरेक मोबाईल फोनको एउटा छुटै IMEI Number हुने गर्दछ। जसलाई हेर्न धेरै जसो मोबाईल फोनहरुमा *#06# डायल गर्नु पर्दछ। यदि तपाईको फोन हराएमा वा चोरी भएमा तपाईले तपाईको नेटवर्क संचालक सँग IMEI ब्लक गर्न आग्रह गर्न सक्नु हुन्छ। जसले गर्दा उक्त नेटवर्कमा अन्य कसैले तपाईको मोबाईल फोन प्रयोग गर्न पाउंदैनन्। साथै चोरी भएको खण्डमा नजिकको प्रहरी कार्यालयमा समेत उजुरी दिनु पर्दछ।

५.    प्रयोग नगरिएको बेला Bluetooth वा GPS बन्द गर्नुहोस
GPS तथा Bluetooth ले फोनको ब्याट्री सकाउने मात्र नभई तपाईको फोनको लोकेशन समेत अरुलाई सजिलै उपलब्ध गराउन सक्द्छन्। GPS तथा Bluetooth को उपयोगिता धेरै भएता पनि, Bluetooth बन्द नगर्नाले प्रयोगकर्ताले चालै नपाईकन अन्य फोनबाट भाईरसहरु Transmit गर्ने वा फोनको सम्बेदनशिल डाटा चोर्ने कार्यमा पनि प्रयोग हुन सक्दछ। त्यसैले प्रयोगमा नआईरहेका बखतमा बन्द गर्नुनै बेश हुन्छ।

६.    क्लिक गर्नु अगाडी बिचार पुर्याुउनुहोस
मोबाईल फोनमा MMS, ईमेल Attachments, लिङ्कहरु क्लिक गर्नु अगाडी बिचार पुर्याेउनु पर्दछ। त्यस्ता मेसेजहरु वा ईमेलहरुमा Virus तथा अनावश्यक प्रचारहरु हुन सक्दछन् जसले तपाईलाई बिभिन्न वेभसाईटहरुमा पुर्या ई तपाईको ब्क्तिगत सूचना चोर्ने तथा फोनलाई भाईरसबाट ग्रसित पार्ने जस्ता कार्यहरु गर्न सक्दछन्। त्यसैले सकेसम्म बिश्वाशिलो माध्यम वा ब्यक्तिबाट आएका मेसेजहरु बाहेक अन्यलाई सोझै क्लिक नगरी Delete गर्नु बेश हुन्छ।

७.    फोन सफ्टवेयर अपडेट नियमित चेक गर्नुहोस
कम्प्युटरमा अपरेटिङ सिस्टम अपडेट गरे जस्तै मोबाईलको सफ्टवेयरहरु पनि बेलाबेला अपडेट गर्न जरुरी छ। अक्सर मोबाईल निर्माता कम्पनीहरुले बेला बखत सफ्टवेयर अपडेटहरु वेभसाईट मार्फत निकालिरहेका हुन्छन्। त्यस्ता अपडेटहरुले उक्त सफ्टवेयरमा भएका कमी कमजोरीहरुलाई हटाई अझ बढी सुरक्षित हुन मद्धत गर्ने गर्दछ।

८.    वायरलेस नेटवर्क प्रयोग गर्दा चनाखो हुनुहोस
खुला वायरलेस नेटवर्कबाट ईन्टरनेट चलाउदा संबेदनशिल सूचनाहरु – जस्तै बैंकिंङ कार्यहरु, पासवर्ड ईन्ट्री गर्नु पर्ने इत्यादी, आदान प्रदान नगर्नुहोस। यस्तो खुला नेटवर्कमा मोबाईलमा ईन्टरनेट चलाउंदा सजिलो भएतापनि जोसुकै ब्यक्ति उक्त नेटवर्कमा छिर्न सक्ने भएकाले डाटा चोरी गर्न ह्याकरहरुलाई सजिलो हुने गर्दछ। त्यसैले मोबाईलबाट वायरलेस नेटवर्क प्रयोग गर्दा पासवर्ड राखी नेटवर्क एक्सेस गर्न मिल्ने नेटवर्कमा मात्रै संवेदनशील कार्यहरु गर्नु पर्दछ।

९.    पासवर्ड वा पिन नम्वरहरु फोनमा नराख्नुहोस
तपाईले सोच्नु भएको होला, मोबाईलमा लुकाएर वा नाम परिवर्तन गरेर आफ्नो संवेदनशील बैंकिङ वा अन्य कुनै पासवर्ड तथा पीनकोडहरु मोबाईलमा राख्दा सूरक्षित भईन्छ भनेर। यदि यस्तो सोच्नु भएको छ भने तपाई गलत हुनु हुन्छ। चोरले सबैभन्दा पहिले यस्तै ठाऊँहरुमा डाटा हेर्ने गर्दछन् र जतिसुकै लुकाएर राखेता पनि सजिलै त्यस्ता डाटाहरु निकाल्न सक्दछन्। त्यसैले सकेसम्म पासवर्ड वा पिन नम्वरहरु जस्ता संवेदनशिल कुराहरु मोबाईलमा नराख्नु नै बेश हुन्छ।

१०.    फोन प्रयोग नगर्ने भए वा अरुलाई प्रयोग गर्न दिनुहुंदै छ भने फोनको सबै डाटा मेट्न नबिर्सनुहोस
यदि तपाईले आफ्नो मोबाईल फोनलाई फ्याक्दै हुनु हुन्छ वा अन्य कसैलाई दिदैं हुनु हुन्छ वा बेच्दै हुनु हुन्छ वा बनाउन दिंदै हुनु हुन्छ भने त्यमा रहेको ब्क्तिगत सूचनाहरु मेटाउनु अतिनै आवश्यक हुन्छ। तर डाटा मेटाउंदा कतिपय डाटाहरु नमेटिएको अथवा मेटिएतापनि फेरी निकाल्न मिल्ने भएको हुन सक्दछन्। त्यसैले फोन बनाउने कम्पनिले दिएको Instructions अनुसारनै मेटाउनु पर्दछ। साथै फोनमा रहेको मेमोरी कार्ड तथा सिम कार्ड समेत निकाल्न बिर्सनु हुंदैन।

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